Note: For studies using the Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (TAS), a sub-scale of the GCI, see the second section of this page.

Atiku, S. O., & Fields, Z. (2019). Global psychological capital and sustainable competitive advantage. In S. Atiku (Ed.), Contemporary Multicultural orientations and Practices for Global Leadership (pp. 145-164). IGI Global. Link

Bird, A., Stevens, M.J., Mendenhall, M.E., & Oddou, G. (2002). The global competencies inventory. St. Louis, MO: The Kozai Group.

Bird, A., & Stevens, M.J. (2013). Assessing global leadership competencies. In M.E Mendenhall, J.S. Osland, A. Bird, G. R. Oddou, M. J. Stevens, M L. Maznevski, G.K. Stahl, Global leadership:  Research, practice, and development. 2nd edition (pp. 125-152). Routledge.

Bird, A., Stevens, M. J., Mendenhall, M. E., & Oddou, G. (2007). The global competencies inventory, version 3.0. St Louis, MO: The Kozai Group.

Boldt, B. A. (2008). Does intervening in the learning of study abroad students facilitate the development of intercultural competencies? Thesis: University of Pacific. Link

Cook, L. (2014). Trust and cultural awareness investigating intercultural effectiveness obstacles in appreciative inquiry.​ Dissertation: Walden University.

Dallas, J.K. (2012). Evaluating and improving the state of global competency within the Appoquinimink school district.​ Dissertation: University of Delaware.

Frederick, M. (2020), Practitioner insights from 25 years of developing global leadership”, Osland, J.S., Szkudlarek, B., Mendenhall, M.E. and Reiche, B.S. (Ed.) Advances in Global Leadership Vol. 13, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 235-242. Link

Braziel, C. (2011). Analysis of cross­-cultural leadership competencies for United States military leaders: A study of United States military security assistance officers in Cairo, Egypt​. Dissertation: Indiana Wesleyan University.

Furuya, N., Stevens, M.J., Bird, A., Oddou, G., & Mendenhall, M.E. (2009). Managing the learning and transfer of global management competence: Antecedents and outcomes of Japanese repatriation effectiveness. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(2), 200-215.

Furuya, N., Stevens, M.J., Oddou, G., Bird, A., & Mendenhall, M.E. (2007). The effects of HR policies and repatriate self‐adjustment on global competency transfer. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 6-23.

Gritsenko, V.V., Khukhlaev, O.E., Pavlova, O.S., Tkachenko, N.V., Usubian, S.A., & Shorokhova, V.A. (2020). Analysis of foreign empirical models of intercultural competence and methods for its evaluation. Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 9(1), 103-113. Link

Herman, J., Stevens, M.J., Bird, A., Mendenhall, M.E., & Oddou, G. (2010). The Tolerance for Ambiguity Scale: Towards a refined measure for international management research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34: 58-65.

Hightower, C. T. (2016). Intercultural competency and first-year students. Dissertation: Texas Christian University.

Huerta, G.E.A. (2012). The crucible international assignment experience of combat deployment.​ Dissertation: Trident University International.

Keely, T.D. (2013). The Kozai Group’s Global Competency Inventory as a predictor of oral performance in foreign languages.​ J​ournal of Industry and Management, ​45: 13­-34.

Keeley, T.D. (2014). The importance of self­-identity and ego permeability in foreign culture adaptation and foreign language acquisition.​ Kyushu Sangyo Business Review),​ 25, (1): 65‐104.

Keeley, T. D. (2014). The self confidence dimension in cultural adaptation and foreign language acquisition: A basis for success in international business. Kyushu Sangyo Business Review, 25(2), 1-24. Link 

Keeley, T.D. (2014). Psychological traits affecting both cultural adaptation and foreign language acquisition. In L. Jackson, D. Meiring, F. van de Vijver, & E. Idemudia (eds.). T​oward sustainbable development through nurturing diversity: Selected papers from the Twenty­ First Congress of the International Association for Cross­Cultural Psychology.​Melbourne, FL: International Association for Cross­Cultural Psychology: 10­24.

Keeley, T.D. (2015). The role of optimism in cross-cultural adaptation and developing foreign language fluency. Kyushu Sangyo Business Review, 36(1), 17-39. Link

Lange, S. (2015). Global leadership effectiveness: The predictive value of cognitively oriented global leadership competencies. Dissertation: San Jose State University.

Lay, A. (2017). Generation as a moderator of the relationship between global leadership competencies and global leadership effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation: San Jose State University).

Le, E.T. (2016). Evaluating the predictive validity of the global competencies inventory for determining global leadership outcomes. San José State University.

Linville, M.W. (2012). An examination of how personality factors influence the adaptability of US national leaders in expatriate contexts. Indiana Wesleyan University.

McGurrin, D.P. (2015). Investigating shared norms in multicultural teams: Exploring how team member scripts and cognitive adjustment strategies impact the norm formation process. Dissertation: North Carolina State University.

Mendenhall, M.E., Stevens, M.J., Bird, A., & Oddou, G.R. (2008). Specification of the content domain of the Global Competencies Inventory (GCI). The Kozai Monograph Series, 1(1), 1-43.

Miska, C., Stahl, G.K., & Mendenhall, M.E. (2013). Intercultural competencies as antecedents of responsible global leadership. European Journal of International Management, 7(5), 550-569. Link

Miteva, D. (2020). Multiple perspectives: Research-led integrated approach to developing language and business skills at tertiary education. ИКОНОМИЧЕСКА НАУКА, ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ И РЕАЛНА ИКОНОМИКА: РАЗВИТИЕ И ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЯ В ДИГИТАЛНАТА ЕПОХА, 710. Link

Petrov, C., Miteva, D., & Ivanova, K. (2020). Achieving prominence In The Digital Age. In Economic science, education and the real economy: Development and interactions in the digital age, (1), 507-518. Link

Sanguyo, A., & Almenar, V.E. (2018). An assessment of the intercultural competence of fourth year business Administration Students of Saint Michael’s College of Laguna: Basis for Career Development Program. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 7, 90-105. Link

Sponseller, A.C. (2023). Japanese Sojourners and Intercultural Effectiveness: A Mixed Methods Case Study. Dissertation: Temple University. Link

Stevens, M., Bird, A., Mendenhall, M.E., & Oddou, G. (2014). Measuring global leader intercultural competency: Development and validation of the Global Competencies Inventory (GCI). Advances in Global Leadership, 8: 115-154.

Thompson, C., Abdul, C., Niles, S., & Wang, W. (2019). Improving cultural competence and intercultural communications: A case study for global management competence training and transfer. Management, Knowledge and Learning. In International Conference (pp. 17-19). Link

Tremel, K.M. (2016). Creating an instrument to measure and develop global leadership competencies and cognition. Thesis: University of Pacific.

Turnbull, S., & Howe-Walsh, L. (2013). Nurturing global talent. HR Bulletin-Research and Practice, 8(2), 3-6. Link

Virzi, K. (2018). An examination of global leadership development strategies for multinational corporations. Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance, and Marketing, 10(1), 28-39.

Vogelgesang, G., Clapp-Smith, R., & Osland, J. (2014). The relationship between positive psychological capital and global mindset in the context of global leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(2), 165-178.

Vora, D. (2020). Reflections on Developing a Global Leadership Course. In Advances in Global Leadership. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Wilson, D. (2017). Culture: Comparison of Analysis and Experience. Thesis: California State University. Link


Abraham, J., & Falah, A. (2016).  Is virtual marriage acceptable? A psychological study investigating the role of ambiguity tolerance and intimacy illusion in online dating among adolescents and early adults. Journal of Psychological and Educational Research, 24(2): 117-143.  Link

Akdere, M., Acheson-Clair, K., & Jiang, Y. (2021). An examination of the effectiveness of virtual reality technology for intercultural competence development. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 82, 109-120.

Arcieri, A.A., & DeLucia, L.R. (2022) Development of a scale of prejudice toward bisexual and transgender individuals on the basis of ambiguity intolerance, Journal of Bisexuality, 22:1, 1-29.

Baciu, E. L., Vîrgă, D., & Lazăr, T. A. (2020). What Characteristics Help Entrepreneurs ‘Make It’Early on in Their Entrepreneurial Careers? Findings of a Regional Study from Romania. Sustainability12(12). Link

Bardeen, J.R., Fergus, T.A. & Orcutt, H.K. (2013). Testing a Hierarchical Model of Distress Tolerance. Journal of Psychopathology Behavior Assessment, 35, 495–505. Link

Brdarević-Čeljo, A., Ahmetović, E., & Bajić, E. (2021). Variation in attitudes towards code switching and code switching frequency among multilingual speakers. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-16.

Bušljeta Banks, I., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Involvement, tolerance for ambiguity, and type of service moderate the effectiveness of probability marker usage in service advertising. Journal of Advertising43(2), 196-209.

Corner, A. J., Liu, L. A., & Bird, A. (2021). Intercultural competencies for emerging markets: A contextualized approach. International Business Review30(3),

Dewaele & James McCloskey (2015) Attitudes towards foreign accents among adult multilingual language users, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 36(3), 221-238.

Dewaele, J.M., & McCloskey, J.  (2015) Attitudes towards foreign accents among adult multilingual language users, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 36(3), 221-238.

Dewaele, J. M., & Wei, L. (2013). Is multilingualism linked to a higher tolerance of ambiguity?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition16(1), 231-240.

Dewaele, J.M., & Wei, L. (2014). Attitudes towards code-switching among adult mono- and multilingual language users.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(3), 235-251.

Dewaele, J. M., & Li, W. (2014). Intra-and inter-individual variation in self-reported code-switching patterns of adult multilinguals. International Journal of Multilingualism11(2), 225-246.

Dimdins, G., Sandgren, M., & Montgomery, H. (2014). Uncertainty avoidance and tough-mindedness as the bases for system justification and dependence on others. In The Biennial Conference of the International Society for Justice Research (ISJR), New York, USA, June 19-22, 2014. (p. 133). Link

Dimdins, G., Sandgren, M., & Montgomery, H. (2016). Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia. Scandinavian journal of psychology57(5), 437-445.

Evanovich, E. K., Marshall, A. J., David, S. J., & Mumma, G. H. (2019). A network conceptualization of the multiple facets of distress tolerance. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping32(6), 654-669.

Fergus, T. A., PhD., Bardeen, J. R., PhD., & Orcutt, H. K., PhD. (2015). Examining the specific facets of distress tolerance that are relevant to health anxiety. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(1), 32-44. 

Fontenot, M. E. (2017). An exploratory study of innovative work behavior. Dissertation, Southern Methodist University.

Furnham, A., & Marks, J. (2013). Tolerance of ambiguity: A review of the recent literature. Psychology4(09), 717-728.

Gärtner, J., Bußenius, L., Prediger, S., Vogel, D., & Harendza, S. (2020). Need for cognitive closure, tolerance for ambiguity, and perfectionism in medical school applicants. BMC medical education20(1), 1-8.

Grace, S. C., Mejia, J. M., Inhofe Rapert, M., & Thyroff, A. (2021). Emotional awareness in time of disruption: The impact of tolerance for ambiguity, worry, perceived stress, helpful communication, and past experience on student satisfaction. Marketing Education Review, 31(3), 226-240.

Grant, A.M., Studholme, I., Verma, R., Kirkwood, L., Paton, B., & O’Connor, S. (2017). The impact of leadership coaching in an Australian healthcare setting. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 31(2), 237-252.

Henry, T. (2017). Epistemic curiosity in engineering education. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Methodist University.

Herman, J.L., Stevens, M.J.,Bird, A., Mendenhall, M.E., & Oddou,G. (2010). The tolerance for ambiguity scale: Towards a more refined measure for international management research.​ I​nternational Journal of Intercultural Relations,​34 (1): 58­-65.

Hietschold, N., & Voegtlin, C. (2021). Blinded by a Social Cause? Differences in Cognitive Biases between Social and Commercial Entrepreneurs. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1-23.

Horváth, L., Hangyál, Z., Kasza, G., & Czirfusz, D. (2020). Teach with Erasmus+ Research Report. Budapest: ELTE Eötvös Loránd University Department of Erasmus+ and International Programmes. Link

Hosseini, F. S., & Dashti Nejad, S. B. (2017). The role of need-for-cognition in tolerance of ambiguity in students of different majors. Journal of Educational Psychology Studies14(26), 145-166.

Hosseini Fatemi, A., Khajavy, G. H., & Choi, C. W. (2016). Testing a model of intercultural willingness to communicate based on ethnocentrism, ambiguity tolerance and sensation seeking: The role of learning English in Iran.  Journal of Intercultural Communication Research45(4), 304-318.

Hubscher-Davidson, S. (2018). Do translation professionals need to tolerate ambiguity to be successful? A study of the links between tolerance of ambiguity, emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. In Lacruz, Isabel and Jääskeläinen, Riitta eds. Innovation and Expansion in Translation Process Research. American Translators Association Scholarly Monograph Series (XVIII). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 77–103. Link

Jach, H. K., & Smillie, L. D. (2019). To fear or fly to the unknown: Tolerance for ambiguity and Big Five personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality79, 67-78.

Jakesch, M., Goller, J., & Leder, H. (2017). Positive fEMG patterns with ambiguity in paintings. Frontiers in Psychology8, 785. Link

Kost, A. (2017). Acceptance of Accommodations for Mental Disabilities. Dissertation: Xavier University.

Krautz, A.E. (2021). Tolerance of ambiguity, need for cognitive closure and feeling like a different person when speaking different languages,Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Link

Lachowska, B., & Ludwikowska, K. (2017). Wyniki wstępnej walidacji polskiej wersji Skali Tolerancji Niejednoznaczności Wielorakich Typów Bodźców. Roczniki Psychologiczne20(4), 855-874. Link

Langaro, D., Loureiro, S. M., & Contreiras, M. L. (2020). The impact of nostalgia and probability markers on the effectiveness of advertising creative strategies. Journal of Promotion Management26(6), 791-811.

Lim, J., & Lee, Y. (2019). Does a mixed online consumer review lead to neutral or ambivalent evaluation. Journal of Marketing Management7(1), 83-93. Link

Martin, J. S., Summerville, A., & Wickline, V. B. (2017). Persuasion and Pragmatics: An Empirical Test of the Guru Effect Model. Review of Philosophy and Psychology8(2), 219-234.

Montford, W. J., Leary, R. B., & Nagel, D. M. (2019). The impact of implicit self-theories and loss salience on financial risk. Journal of Business Research99, 1-11. Link

O’Bryan, E.M., Beadel, J.R., McLeish, A.C., & Teachman, B.A. (2021). Assessment of intolerance of uncertainty: Validation of a modified anagram task. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,

Ondish, P. (2019). Ideological differences in the use of social class categories to organize and understand society. Doctoral dissertation: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Link

Petersen, M.B., Bor, A., Jørgensen, F., & Lindholt, M.F. (2021). Transparent communication about negative features of COVID-19 vaccines decreases acceptance but increases trust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, July 2021, 118 (29) Link

Redding, N. (2016). Leadership complexity while navigating a complex conflict: Linking individual attributes with dynamic decision-making processes. Dissertation: Columbia University.

Rosiers, A., & Eyckmans, J. (2016). Tolerance of ambiguity in advanced language learners and language professionals. In Psychology of Language Learning 2. Jyväskylä, Finland.

Rosiers, A., & Eyckmans, J. (2017). Investigating tolerance of ambiguity in novice and expert translators and interpreters: An exploratory study. Translation & Interpreting9(2), 52-66.

Ruck, J. (2020). Multilingualism and affective Attitudes: The sociocognitive profiles of first‐year learners of L2 German. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German53(2), 210-228.

Strohbehn, G. W., Hoffman, S. J., Tokaz, M., Houchens, N., Slavin, R., Winter, S., … & Howell, J. D. (2020). Visual arts in the clinical clerkship: a pilot cluster-randomized, controlled trial. BMC Medical Education20(1), 1-9.

Simo Suurkuukka, S. (2022). Indicators to predict success of a start-up in a corporate accelerator setting. Master’s Thesis. Lappeenranta–Lahti University of Technology LUT, Finland.

Swami, V., Barron, D., Weis, L., & Furnham, A. (2018). To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. British Journal of Psychology109(1), 156-179.

Tan, D. C. E. (2021). Academic hardiness among Malaysians university students: academic hardiness, academic locus of control, tolerance of ambiguity, students’ engagement and automatic negative thoughts (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).

van Compernolle, R.A. (2016) Are multilingualism, tolerance of ambiguity, and attitudes toward linguistic variation related?, International Journal of Multilingualism, 13:1, 61-73.

van Compernolle, R.A. (2017). Preferences for (in)formal language: Correlations with attitudes toward linguistic variation, multilingualism, tolerance of ambiguity, and residence abroadInternational Journal of Multilingualism14(4), 317– 331.

Wei, R., & Hu, Y. (2019). Exploring the relationship between multilingualism and tolerance of ambiguity: A survey study from an EFL context. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition22(5), 1209-1219.

Wei, R., Kang,Y., & Wang, S. (2022). The relationship between tolerance of ambiguity and multilingualism revisited. System, 107, 102798, ISSN 0346-251X,

Yanping, D. E. N. G. (2020). Exploring the relationships among raters’ attitudes toward accentedness, tolerance of ambiguity, and rating behaviors in speaking assessment. 早稲田大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 別冊1(28). 

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